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domingo, 28 de fevereiro de 2016

The 8 Rules Of Building New Muscle

The muscle you have now was earned one way. The muscle you don't have yet might play by a different set of rules entirely. Here's what they are!
You may have heard the term "muscle memory." What this means is that once you've properly trained your muscles to grow, they'll readily regrow after a cutting phase, or even a lengthy break due to life circumstances. Muscle, in other words, is smart. If it's been to a certain level once, it can find its way back.
However, when you're trying to grow or increase muscle mass beyond where you've been before, it's more challenging. To make these gains, it helps if you better understand how muscles "think." Too often, performance and physique athletes emphasize random, challenging training protocols without focusing on how and why muscles grow.
Once you understand the eight rules for building muscle tissue and incorporate them into your training program, you'll see results you'll never forget. I guess you could say that's another definition of "muscle memory."
1

CHANGE THE LITTLE THINGS OFTEN

No matter how effective a training style is, your body learns fast and stops further growth. Even negative reps—which spur growth by causing lots of damage to muscle fibers—can quickly become ineffective after just a few consecutive workouts.
When you perform the same workout over and over, muscle mass adapts to your training, and it eventually plateaus, which is another way of saying that it stops growing. Many people think they are "successful" if they crank out one more rep with a given weight, or lift 5 more pounds than they did the time before. But if that's the only approach you use, it's not efficient.
PAULINE NORDIN RECOMMENDS CHANGING UP THE VARIABLES FROM ONE WORKOUT TO THE NEXT: REP RANGES, TIME UNDER TENSION, THE WEIGHT YOU USE, REST PERIODS, PICKING SIMILAR-BUT-DIFFERENT EXERCISES, AND EVEN DURATION OF REST BETWEEN SETS.
How to do it: Change up the variables from one workout to the next:rep ranges, time under tension, the weight you use, rest periods, picking similar-but-different exercises, and even duration of rest between sets. Always let your muscles know the overall goal, but keep them guessing about the details.
2

GIVE YOUR MUSCLES SPACE TO ADAPT

This rule may seem to contradict the previous one, but it's a necessary companion, a yin to the yang. You must stress muscle tissue to trigger growth, but then you must allow it to heal. After all, it's the healing process that ultimately creates the growth.
Don't leave this part up to chance or wait until you're burned out. Whether you're a performance, strength, or physique athlete, you must build recovery phases into your training. Otherwise, you'll never maximize muscle growth.
How to do it: No single body part should be maximally stressed more than 2-3 times a week—and three is an exception. Nor should you hammer a particular muscle group for more than about six weeks. Your whole body needs to recover from body-part-specific training too. Include at least one full rest day at least once a week. Every 2-3 months, take off an entire week.
3

DON'T REINVENT THE WHEEL WHEN IT COMES TO NUTRITION

While time is the greatest healer, proper nutrition is one of the most important factors in adding muscle tissue. What you eat provides the raw materials for growth.
I could provide you with some new-fangled, overcomplicated approach "guaranteed" to add 10 pounds of flesh in a week, but I won't. Just get enough of the right stuff, at the right time. It's not rocket science.
YOUR FAMILIAR OLD PROGRAM WON'T HELP YOU NOW. SET DIVERSE GOALS AND EMBRACE NEW OBSTACLES. IT'S THE ONLY WAY TO GROW.
How to do it: The theory of the "anabolic window" has suffered some cracks in recent years, but post-workout is still as good a time as any to consume a shake with fast-digesting protein like whey protein. Also, consume plenty of healthy nutrients through multiple meals throughout the day. My recommendation for growth is 1.5 grams of protein per pound of lean body weight per day—every day. Don't miss a day.
4

CHANGE THE BIG THINGS EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE

Muscle tissue is smart. It figures out what you're trying to do pretty quickly. You can change the little things daily while keeping the big idea the same, but after about 6-8 weeks, the muscle will catch on. This is the point of diminishing returns, but too many people coast right by it and keep coasting through workouts they could do in their sleep.
This is why it's crucial to make a significant shift in your training program every 6-8 weeks or so. It's hard, because you'll have to change and actually learn new things, but it's definitely the best way.
How to do it: Go from a muscle-growth phase to a strength phase, to a ripping-up phase, to a cross-training phase, or to something else entirely. Just make sure to change the protocol every 6-8 weeks or so.
5

PERFORM FREE-WEIGHT EXERCISES FIRST

One of the ways to encourage growth is by forcing your muscles to deal with the multiple demands imposed by free weights. Not only do you have to lift the weight, but you also have to stabilize it with muscles other than the prime movers of the lift. Stabilizers are the often-tiny muscles that help keep your joints strong, and help prevent damage to tendons and ligaments. When you train with machines, you lose much of this stabilization component.
How to do it: After your warm-up, start your workout with free-weight movements. This is the most important work you'll do. Machine work can come afterward to add some volume and meet specific goals.
YES, BARBELLS ARE HARDER TO CONTROL THAN MACHINES. THIS IS NO ACCIDENT. AND IT'S EXACTLY WHY YOU NEED MORE FREE WEIGHTS IN YOUR PROGRAM.
6

FOCUS ON FORM ABOVE ALL

Your muscles have friends called tendons and ligaments. You may only think about these guys when they're complaining, but their importance goes beyond avoiding injury. Your tendons must be healthy if you want to apply proper stress to muscle tissue. You can build muscle with sloppy form, but your connective tissues will eventually cry uncle, interrupting your relentless quest—and painfully so.
Your goal is to create stress to muscle tissue that can be repaired in a day or two—not to cause so much damage that you get injured. When you perform free-weight moves with proper form, you're strengthening, these crucial support structures rather than damaging them. That helps lead to greater muscle growth.
How to do it: Don't assume your form is perfect. It probably isn't. Plenty of people think their squat is just fine when...yeesh. Have someone take a look, and prepare yourself for criticism.
7

KNOW THAT THE MORE YOU HAVE, THE HARDER IT IS TO ADD

Muscles grow more slowly—much more slowly—than you probably desire. More bad news: Once you've added a significant amount of muscle tissue, it becomes even more challenging.
On the other hand, that's what makes working out so amazing. There are no shortcuts—or at least no legal ones. You need to pay your dues and put in your time, and then you can wear that added muscle like the badge of honor it is.
Change up the variables from one workout to the next: rep ranges, time under tension, the weight you use, rest periods, picking similar-but-different exercises,
DON'T LET ANYONE TRY TO CONVINCE YOU THAT ADDING MUSCLE IS SHALLOW OR VAIN. STICK WITH IT, AND YOU'LL BE THE LAST ONE STANDING.
How to do it: Have patience, and stay disciplined. Keep going to the gym and performing challenging routines. Keep changing up the variables of your workouts like clockwork. When you start rushing, that's when you'll often suffer an injury that will set you way back. It's virtually impossible to train your entire life without getting injured, but you can avoid most injuries by training smart.
8

EMBRACE MUSCLE-BUILDING AS HEALTH-BUILDING

Many people will tell you that spending time in the gym to build muscle mass is superficial. Sure, having defined arms and strong legs make you feel great in the mirror or while you strut in your favorite outfit, that doesn't mean they're not important.
In addition to the health benefits you gain from the training process itself, simply carrying more muscle is healthy. Muscle tissue revs up your metabolic rate, helping your body prevent fat storage, and it also acts as extra armor you can rely on in times of extreme stress such as injury, illness and surgery. For seniors, more muscle mass is tied to a greater life expectancy—and greater ability to withstand what otherwise might be a life-changing event.
How to do it: Ignore the haters. Anyone who spends time trying to tear you down for your fitness success is the one with the psychological problem, not you. And it isn't your job to fix them. Ignore what they say, and hope that they'll one day see the light. When they do, you'll be standing there, heathy and strong, as an example to learn from

sexta-feira, 26 de fevereiro de 2016

Como descobrir que tipo de fibra MUSCULAR você tem mais?

Tipos de Fibras musculares



Que tipo de treinamento envolve as fibras musculares mais rápidas e qual envolve as mais lentas? Qual é a diferença entre estes dois tipos e como determinar qual deles você tem mais?

Fibras musculares brancas e vermelhas

Tanto o ser humano, como os outros animais têm no corpo tipos diferentes de fibras musculares. Quando expostas a distintos gêneros de esforço e de duração do mesmo, as fibras irão se comportar de forma diferente, indo buscar energia a mecanismos e processos variados.
As fibras musculares vermelhas usam a gordura como fonte de energia e em exercícios de queima de gordura são precisamente estas as engajadas no trabalho. Já as fibras musculares brancas são importantes para cargas de força e são elas as responsáveis ​​pela hipertrofia muscular.

Tipos de esforço: contínuo ou explosivo

Quando falamos dos tipos de fibras musculares, o mais fácil mesmo é analisar o frango como um exemplo bem esclarecedor: os músculos nas patas, asas e peito do frango variam tanto na cor (nas patas são mais escuros), como na estrutura (o peito e as asas têm menos gordura).
Na maioria do seu tempo, o frango ora está de pé, ora caminha devagar, o que faz com que os músculos das patas se encontrem sob constante esforço de baixa intensidade. Os músculos das asas raramente são usados, apenas em curtos esforços explosivos como, por exemplo, numa tentativa de voar de um ponto para outro.

Fibras lentas / Vermelhas

Para operar devidamente, os músculos usados durante muitos minutos a baixa intensidade precisam da energia que vem da oxidação de triglicerídeos com a ajuda do oxigênio. A cor vermelha das fibras musculares se deve precisamente à presença do oxigénio.
A fonte de triglicerídeos para as fibras vermelhas, isto é, a sua principal fonte de energia, são os ácidos graxos livres obtidos da gordura subcutânea. É por isso que a carne vermelha do frango é mais gorda do que a carne branca(1).

Fibras rápidas / Brancas

Para cargas ou esforços curtos mas de alta intensidade, os músculos necessitam de um fornecimento energético rápido, e uma vez que os processos de oxidação da gordura requerem tempo, o organismo vai utilizar o glicogénio e o fosfato de creatina como fonte de energia para um esforço explosivo(2)
A fonte do glicogênio são os carboidratos e a fonte da creatina fosfato é a proteína e a carne. Além disso, a creatina fosfato pode ser obtida através dos suplementos esportivos. Por não necessitarem de oxigénio, estas fibras são muito mais claras do que as lentas.

Como descobrir que tipo de fibra você tem mais?

Os grandes grupos musculares do ser humano reúnem diferentes tipos de fibras. Na maioria dos casos, a distribuição é uniforme e os músculos são compostos por metade de fibras rápidas e metade lentas(3). As exceções de maior destaque são os músculos da coluna vertebral e das pernas.
Com treinamento constante, o organismo consegue eventualmente mudar essa distribuição, dando preferência àquele tipo de fibra do qual necessita mais. Os atletas profissionais, como os velocistas, por exemplo, têm mais fibras de contração rápida do que as pessoas normais.

Tipos de treino e participação das fibras

O treino de força, tal como o sprint – corrida de velocidade de curta distância, envolve no seu trabalho as fibras de contração predominantemente rápida, indo buscar ao glicogênio a sua principal energia. É precisamente por isso que as séries curtas se intercalam com alguns minutos de descanso.
Para engajar no trabalho as fibras de contração lenta e, consequentemente, para queimar gordura, é necessário expor o corpo a cargas prolongadas de esforço (a partir de 30) que têm que ser executadas na zona aeróbia da frequência cardíaca. É importante saber que os treinos cíclicos atuam ao mesmo tempo em vários tipos de fibras(4).

Treino dos diferentes tipos de fibra

Se deseja criar um corpo esportivo, bem sarado e com músculos bem delineados, você precisa trabalhar não apenas as fibras de contração rápida (treino de força), mas também as fibras de contração lenta (cárdios prolongados).
Para engajar no trabalho as fibras lentas você terá que, primeiro, queimar as reservas de glicogênio, processo que pode levar até 30 minutos. É por isso que uma estratégia eficaz para a perda de gordura é a prática de exercícios com o estômago vazio, quando a quantidade de glicogênio é mínima.
***
As fibras musculares se dividem em dois tipos: rápidas e lentas. O treino de força e a corrida em estilo sprint envolve as fibras de contração rápidas e requer glicogênio. Já os exercícios prolongados de cárdio envolvem as fibras de contração lenta, que necessitam de gordura para ir buscar energia.

10 Best Muscle-Building Biceps Exercises

By Parker Hyde, CSCS, CISSN, and Bill Geiger




Quick: What's the best biceps move? If you said, "all of them," you need a little help in exercise selection. We combine science with experience to guide you on the ultimate quest for bigger arms!
Over the years, a number of studies have sought to investigate the best biceps exercises. It might surprise you at first—after all, have you ever read an article about the best way to fill out the sleeves of your lab coat? But on the other hand, you know the first thing you'd do if you ever got access to an EMG machine would be to hook it up to your guns. Be honest.
So what's the usual winner? The concentration curl, a staple in the bodybuilding regimens of golden era lifters like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Lou Ferrigno.1 But here's the catch: We've never met a single bodybuilder who whole-heartedly agreed.
Why the discrepancy? For one, experienced lifters know that while muscle activation matters, it isn't the only thing that matters. At some point, the amount of weight you can move counts, too! Otherwise, exercises like leg extensions, which can have a higher EMG score for quads than squats and leg press, would dominate the leg workouts of champion bodybuilders. Of course, squats are the better move—and not just for quads.
So be forewarned: There's a lot of info—and a lot of personal judgement—backing up our list of the best biceps moves, just like there was when we rated the best backlegtriceps, and chest exercises. You don't have to consider it a definitive list; just take it as the start of the discussion, and then go start investigating for yourself!
Why it's on the list: The shoulder-width curl engages the short and long heads of the biceps equally, you can really pile on the weight, and you don't have to sit there endlessly working one arm at a time. How many more reasons do you need? If you're only going to do one biceps exercise, make it this one.
THE SHOULDER-WIDTH CURL ENGAGES THE SHORT AND LONG HEADS OF THE BICEPS EQUALLY, YOU CAN REALLY PILE ON THE WEIGHT, AND YOU DON'T HAVE TO SIT THERE ENDLESSLY WORKING ONE ARM AT A TIME.
Just don't expect the studies to agree wholeheartedly; the gold-standard EMG study by Boeckh-Behrens from 2000, and a more recent ACE study from 2014, rank this exercise about halfway down their lists. We favor it because of the increased potential for loading, and the ease with which you can alter your grip width to change the emphasis. You can also switch from a straight bar to an EZ-bar to take it easy on your wrists.
So do it—and do it as many ways as you can! Wider can give a little more emphasis to the short head, and a narrow grip hits the long head. But be warned: A narrow grip reduces overall muscle activation by nearly 15 percent, so don't use this grip exclusively.2
In your workout: Do it first, at the beginning of your biceps workout, so you can really challenge yourself with weight. For a bit more of a strength stimulus, choose a weight you can handle for about 6-8 reps. Warning: It's really easy to cheat on this movement. Keep it strict for the most part, especially when you're going heavy.
Why it's on the list: The second-rated biceps exercise in the ACE study and third in the Boeckh-Behrens, this movement is a lot like the standing barbell curl at first glance. After all, they're both bilateral movements in which you take a shoulder-width, underhand grip on the bar. What makes it different is that the angle of loading comes from down and forward, giving you constant tension on the muscle through the full range of motion.
Essentially, that means you can't rest at the bottom or the top, even if you let your elbows drift forward (which you shouldn't do, as it means your front delts are assisting).
In your workout: Because it's so similar to the barbell curl, pick one or the other. If you're doing it first in your workout, go fairly heavy, and use a challenging weight.
Why it's on the list: Is this really any different than a barbell curl? That's up to you. Yes, you can just do a repetitive movement (we don't recommend it), but the real value of this exercise is that it can be done a number of ways: standing or seated on a vertical or incline bench, with both hands or alternating sides, rotating wrists into a Zottman curl, or keeping them face up. In short, you have options.
YES, YOU CAN JUST DO A REPETITIVE MOVEMENT (WE DON'T RECOMMEND IT), BUT THE REAL VALUE OF THIS EXERCISE IS THAT IT CAN BE DONE A NUMBER OF WAYS.
In your workout: If you're doing these after barbell or cable curls, emphasize the difference by performing a wrist-rotation version, or extending the set by switching from bilateral to unilateral as you fatigue during a set. If you feel your reps getting sloppy, really hammer the negatives. It's been shown that the negative portion can elicit up to 40 percent more muscle activation during some curling movements.2
Why it's on the list: Here's your first multi-joint exercise on the list. As with any underhand-grip back exercise, the biceps are heavily recruited.3 The problem with the bodyweight version is that if you're very strong, you may be able to do 20-30 reps, so using added weight can push you back into a muscle-building 8-12 rep range. The ACE study ranks this third, but that version was unweighted.
Even though both chin-ups and pull-ups have a high degree of elbow flexion, research has shown that chin-ups (underhand grip) have a greater range of motion in the elbows.4 More ROM equals more biceps involvement!
In your workout: If you train back with biceps, this exercise could make a great bridge movement between the two body parts. If you don't have a belt to add weight and you're strong on this movement, consider pushing it later into your biceps workout, after fatigue has begun to set in.
Why it's on the list: It's another multijoint movement in which you can go very heavy, and with the reverse grip, the biceps are heavily engaged. It's not really the kind of exercise you'd do on a biceps-only day, but it's another one that makes a good bridge between back and biceps.
THE REVERSE-GRIP BARBELL ROW IS NOT REALLY THE KIND OF EXERCISE YOU'D DO ON A BICEPS-ONLY DAY, BUT IT'S ANOTHER ONE THAT MAKES A GOOD BRIDGE BETWEEN BACK AND BICEPS.
In your workout: Include it in your back routine, or as a bridge exercise when training back and biceps together. Go fairly heavy, and train in the muscle-building rep range.

 
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Why it's on the list: Curls with a palms-facing or neutral grip do more than just hit the biceps; they also heavily recruit the brachialis, a muscle that doesn't get measured on EMG studies because it's beneath the biceps. Increasing the girth of the brachialis can make your entire arm larger. With the cable, you get the benefits of constant tension throughout the range of motion, giving it a slight edge over the dumbbell hammer curl.
In your workout: None of the other exercises on our list includes a neutral grip, so it can be added to just about any routine. Some elbow-flexion exercises have even demonstrated greater biceps activation, especially on the long head, when using a hammer grip opposed to a supinated grip.2 Do it toward the latter half of your arm workout.
Why it made the list: An exercise that emphasizes just one of the two biceps heads isn't going to score high on total biceps EMG activation—and it didn't in the ACE study—but this one may theoretically hit the long head particularly well. The incline-bench curl elongates the biceps and increases the stretch, creating an inefficient starting position for the muscle fibers. This means a greater amount of effort must be applied to the load to generate speed and initiate a contraction. Theoretically, the long head gets the benefit of the less-efficient starting position, with greater muscle recruitment necessary than in other arm positions.
THE INCLINE-BENCH CURL ELONGATES THE BICEPS AND INCREASES THE STRETCH, CREATING AN INEFFICIENT STARTING POSITION FOR THE MUSCLE FIBERS. THIS MEANS A GREATER AMOUNT OF EFFORT MUST BE APPLIED TO THE LOAD TO GENERATE SPEED AND INITIATE A CONTRACTION.
In your workout: Perform these after an exercise like standing curls, in which both biceps heads are targeted with heavy weight. Because of the "overstretched" arm position at the bottom of the movement and its inefficiency, you won't be able to toss up the really big weights, so it's best done later in your training session.
Why it's on the list: Hey, there's a reason the concentration curl fares so well on muscle-activation studies. The position of the torso has something to do with that, but likely so does the increased mind-muscle connection many people report experiencing. There is actually some emerging evidence surrounding the ability of the mind-muscle connection to garner greater increases in hypertrophic training adaptations.3
In your workout: Because of the restricted loading capability, it will be best to push this toward the end of your workout, when you're already somewhat fatigued. Pick a weight just heavy enough that you're failing at 10-12 reps.
Why it's on the list: There are many versions of the preacher curl: machine, bar, dumbbell, cable, one arm or two, standing or seated. You can even curl off the straight end of the bench, called a Scott curl after the first Mr. Olympia, Larry Scott. Regardless of which variation you choose, you'll get a serious biceps pump!
As with other movements that start from a stretched position, you get peak muscle activation and forces during the lower-third of the concentric movement.4 As the wrist moves closer to the elbow joint and eventually past it, it becomes a more advantageous position for the muscle, meaning it doesn't have to work as hard. This is one reason the cable might be the best implement to use here.
In your workout: Since your arms are against a bench, it's a very strict movement that doesn't allow a lot of cheating. Hence, this movement is best done toward the latter half of your workout. You can program it as a long-head movement, since it could theoretically emphasize that head, although no study has verified this.
Why it's on the list: In contrast to strict barbell curls, where you keep your elbows pinned at your sides, you'll actually push them backward, keeping the bar close to your torso as you bring it up. This reduces the range of motion, so don't expect to take it up very high. Because the bar moves vertically up and down, it can also be done on a Smith machine—seriously, try it!
In your workout: If you're looking to make this tenth-ranked exercise a five-star winner, focus on the negative part of the reps. You'll need a workout partner. Start with the bar in the top position, with a very heavy weight, and take about 3-5 seconds to lower it to the bottom. Your partner should then help you get it back to the top. Repeat for 5-8 reps.
If you're doing negatives, do this move first in your workout. Otherwise, it can be plugged in anywhere from the middle to the end.

 
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REFERENCES
  1. ACE Study Reveals Best Biceps Exercises. (2015, August). Retrieved from http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/expert-insight-article/47/4947/ace-study-reveals-best-biceps-exercises/.
  2. Boeckh-Behrens, W. U., Beier, P., & Buskies, W. (2001). Fitness Strength Training: The Best Exercises and Methods of Sport and Health.
  3. Youdas, J. W., Amundson, C. L., Cicero, K. S., Hahn, J. J., Harezlak, D. T., & Hollman, J. H. (2010). Surface electromyographic activation patterns and elbow joint motion during a pull-up, chin-up, or perfect-pullup rotational exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(12), 3404-3414.
  4. Oliveira, L. F., Matta, T. T., Alves, D. S., Garcia, M. A., & Vieira, T. M. (2009). Effect of the shoulder position on the biceps brachii EMG in different dumbbell curls. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(1), 24-29.

Regras de hipertrofia

Que tipo de treino de força é preferível para a ocorrência da hipertrofia (crescimento da fibra muscular)? Quantas séries e repetições é preciso fazer e quanto deve se descansar entre as séries?

O que é a hipertrofia muscular?

O termo médico "hipertrofia" designa um aumento de um órgão ou de uma parte dele como resultado do aumento do volume e/ou da quantidade de células(1), a frase "hipertrofia muscular" se refere ao crescimento da massa muscular de um organismo ou de grupos de músculos individuais.
Na verdade, é precisamente esta hipertrofia muscular que surge, na maioria dos casos, como objetivo principal do treino de força e musculação, porque sem o aumento direto do tamanho do músculo não pode haver aumento da força, nem aumento do volume da musculatura.

Tipos de hipertrofia

A hipertrofia se divide em dois tipos: miofibrilar e sarcoplasmática. No primeiro caso, o crescimento dos músculos é obtido graças ao aumento direto da fibra muscular, no segundo – graças ao aumento do fluído nutriente em torno da fibra(1).
A massa muscular resultante destes dois tipos de hipertrofia difere um pouco uma da outra: a hipertrofia miofibrilar se caracterizada por músculos "secos" e puxados, enquanto a sarcoplasmática exibe músculos "bombados" e volumosos.

Hipertrofia miofibrilar

Se você treina com pouco peso e repetições baixas (entre 2 a 6), o músculo ativo receberá o sinal que precisa ficar mais forte e, portanto, crescer mais. Neste caso o crescimento muscular estará diretamente ligado ao aumento do volume da própria fibra muscular.
Os pesos utilizados no treino para ocorrência da hipertrofia miofibrilar devem ser, no máximo, de cerca de 80% de 1RM (repetição máxima). O intervalo entre as séries vai de 90 segundos a vários minutos. Este treinamento requer um aumento constante do peso, uma vez que os músculos se adaptam(2).

Hipertrofia sarcoplasmática

O levantamento de pesos mais sérios com repetições maiores (entre 8 a 12) exige do músculo alto consumo de energia, que se encontra no sarcoplasma. É por isso que este tipo de treino provoca precisamente o aumento do volume do sarcoplasma.
Embora um treino com um número maior de repetições (acima de 15) provoque hipertrofia sarcoplasmática, ela acaba sendo inferior, porque com este número de repetições não é possível trabalhar com pesos muito elevados e a carga geral de trabalho do músculo acaba sendo inferior(2).

Tipos de tecido muscular

É importante notar que o treino de força com elevação de pesos age exclusivamente nas fibras musculares rápidas, já que para se conseguir o envolvimento das lentas são precisas cargas estáticas como, por exemplo, manter o peso em cima por dez minutos.
A fonte de alimentação das fibras de contração rápida é o glicogênio e o fosfato de creatina(3). No trabalho dos músculos, as reservas se esgotam em 10 ou 12 segundos, depois do que se torna necessária a recuperação que exigirá entre 30 a 90 segundos de repouso, e é nisto que se baseia a recomendação de descanso entre as séries.

Regras do crescimento muscular

Obviamente que as reservas de glicogênio e fosfato de creatina no organismo são limitadas e quanto mais ativo for o treino, mais rápido essas reservas se esgotam. Além disso, o corpo do principiante, desacostumado ao treino de força, tem relativamente poucas reservas.
Na maioria dos casos, uma sessão de treino requer cerca de 100-150 gramas de hidratos de carbono e 3,5 g de creatina. Se você não tomar consumir valores, não será possível falar de crescimento muscular substancial, uma vez que os mecanismos de hipertrofia se encontram minimizados.

Quantas séries fazer por treino?

Se executar o programa de treinamento "padrão" de 10 exercícios com 3-5 séries cada, no total fará entre 30 a 50 séries. É importante compreender que o impulso para o crescimento obtido neste caso será substancialmente menor do que no programa de base.
Apenas quando executar um treino com um máximo de 10 a 15 séries e com a carga total, com suficiente glicogénio e fosfato de creatina no organismo, é que conseguirá ativar os mecanismos da hipertrofia que provocam o subsequente crescimento dos músculos.
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A hipertrofia se divide em dois tipos diferentes: crescimento muscular à custa do crescimento da fibra propriamente dita (repetições baixas com peso máximo) e à custa das reservas energéticas dos músculos (número médio de repetições e peso entre o moderado e o pesado)

Como crescem os músculos

Explicação científica: como e por que cresce o tecido muscular. Que tipo de treino de força é o melhor para aumentar a força muscular e que tipo é o melhor para aumentar a massa?

Por que crescem os músculos?

Na primeira parte deste artigo falamos que a quantidade de fibras musculares é decidida geneticamente e que os músculos crescem graças ao aumento de volume (hipertrofia). Acredita-se que mais de 80% do crescimento é causado pelo tecido conjuntivo(1).
Os outros 20% derivam do aumento das reservas de substâncias nutritivas. Embora elas constituam apenas 20%, sem elas o crescimento se torna simplesmente impossível. Como sempre, o princípio 80-20 da Lei de Pareto continua atual.

O papel da alimentação no crescimento muscular

Como resultado do treino de força, o organismo aumenta as suas reservas de energia e substâncias nutritivas nos músculos, o que lhe permite treinar por mais tempo e com maior eficácia, assim como se recuperar de microlesões e construir tecido conjuntivo mais rapidamente.
Uma alimentação reforçada após o treino (“janela metabólica”) é importante para aumentar a capacidade do organismo de converter e armazenar energia para um treino mais puxado na vez seguinte. Se você não comer o suficiente, o crescimento muscular fica seriamente comprometido.

Crescimento muscular e hormônios

Para assimilar aminoácidos e crescer, as células musculares precisam de umas enzimas específicas. A capacidade de produzir essas enzimas é bastante limitada, mas em alguns casos as células-satélites que as rodeiam conseguem transmitir-lhes essas importantes enzimas.
Em primeiro lugar, as células-satélites são ativadas pelos hormônios (hormônio do crescimento, testosterona, IGF-1 e outros), cuja secreção aumenta durante o treino de força e, em segundo lugar, a atividade das células-satélites aumenta com a ingestão de creatina(2).

Treinos para aumentar a força

Embora o aumento de força não esteja diretamente relacionado com o aumento de volume, a prática de exercícios com mais peso e poucas repetições estimula um tipo específico de fibra muscular: a fibra lenta (Tipo II).
Se o seu objetivo é aumentar a força, então deve executar os exercícios com um peso de 80% de 1RM (repetição máxima) com 3-5 repetições(3). Esse tipo de treino ativa o funcionamento do sistema nervoso e aumenta a secreção de hormônios, como é o caso, por exemplo, do programa básico.

Treinos para aumentar a massa

Se o seu objetivo principal é aumentar o volume dos músculos, então precisa de 6 a 12 repetições com um peso de mais ou menos 70-85 de 1RM(3). Mas ao fazer isso não se esqueça que quanto menor o grupo muscular, maior o número de repetições que ele precisa e vice-versa.
O treino com uma quantidade média de repetições estimula a fibra muscular rápida (Tipo IIB), que reage ao glicógeno. Isto, junto com uma maior circulação e quantidades suficientes de substâncias nutritivas no sangue, leva ao aumento do volume dos músculos.

Frequência ideal de treino

O tempo necessário para recuperação e crescimento das fibras musculares após o treino é de 36 a 48 horas, por isso não se recomenda treinar repetidamente o mesmo grupo muscular. E mais uma vez lembramos que sem alimento suficiente esse crescimento não acontece.
Em primeiro lugar, você deve ingerir carboidratos antes do treino de força, já que eles vão completar as reservas de glicógeno; em segundo lugar, o crescimento muscular necessita de alimentos proteicos, cálcio e vitaminas; em terceiro lugar, a creatina melhora a energia das células musculares.
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A execução dos exercícios com peso elevado e poucas repetições aumenta, acima de tudo, a força. Já a execução com um peso médio e um número médio de repetições aumenta a massa e o volume dos músculos. Mas o crescimento não se dá sem alimento suficiente nem recuperação.
Referências:
  1. Muscle Growth: Why, And How, Does A Muscle Grow And Get Stronger, Casey Butt, Ph.D., source
  2. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training, source
  3. Rational and Irrational Hypertrophy: Why Aren't Olympic Lifters Bigger Than Bodybuilders?, source